# Excel functions

In Excel, function is a pre-defined formula that makes calculations easier. We’ll just have to input specific values in specific order known in Excel as arguments.

Here is a compiled list of all functions in Excel and what they do:

ABS Returns the absolute (positive) value of a number.
ACCRINT Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.VL
ACCRINTM Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays at maturity.
ACOS Returns the arccosine of a number.
ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
ACOT Returns the arccotangent of a number.
ACOTH Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number.
AGGREGATE Returns an aggregate in a list or database.
ADDRESS Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet.
AMORDEGRC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient
AMORLINC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period
AND Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE
ARABIC Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number
AREAS Returns the number of areas in a reference
ASC Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters
ASIN Returns the arcsine of a number
ASINH Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number
ATAN Returns the arctangent of a number
ATAN2 Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates
ATANH Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number
AVEDEV Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean
AVERAGE Returns the average of its arguments
AVERAGEA Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
AVERAGEIF Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria
AVERAGEIFS Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria.
BAHTTEXT Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format
BASE Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base)
BESSELI Returns the modified Bessel function In(x)
BESSELJ Returns the Bessel function Jn(x)
BESSELK Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x)
BESSELY Returns the Bessel function Yn(x)
BETADIST Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
BETA.DIST Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.
BETAINV Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
BETA.INV Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution.
BIN2DEC Converts a binary number to decimal
BIN2HEX Converts a binary number to hexadecimal
BIN2OCT Converts a binary number to octal
BINOMDIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
BINOM.DIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.
BINOM.DIST.RANGE Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution
BINOM.INV Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value
BITAND Returns a ‘Bitwise And’ of two numbers
BITLSHIFT Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits
BITOR Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers
BITRSHIFT Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits
BITXOR Returns a bitwise ‘Exclusive Or’ of two numbers
CALL Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource
CEILING Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
CEILING.MATH Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
CEILING.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
CELL Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell.
CHAR Returns the character specified by the code number
CHIDIST Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
CHIINV Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
CHITEST Returns the test for independence. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
CHISQ.DIST Returns the cumulative beta probability density function
CHISQ.DIST.RT Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHISQ.INV Returns the cumulative beta probability density function
CHISQ.INV.RT Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
CHISQ.TEST Returns the test for independence.
CHOOSE Chooses a value from a list of values
CLEAN Removes all nonprintable characters from text
CODE Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string
COLUMN Returns the column number of a reference
COLUMNS Returns the number of columns in a reference
COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects
COMBINA Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items
COMPLEX Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number
CONCAT Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn’t provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments.
CONCATENATE Joins several text items into one text item
CONFIDENCE Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
CONFIDENCE.NORM Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
CONFIDENCE.T Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student’s t distribution
CONVERT Converts a number from one measurement system to another
CORREL Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets
COS Returns the cosine of a number
COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number
COT Return the cotangent of an angle specified in radians.
COTH Return the hyperbolic cotangent of a hyperbolic angle.
COUNT Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments
COUNTA Counts how many values are in the list of arguments
COUNTBLANK Counts the number of blank cells within a range
COUNTIF Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria
COUNTIFS Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria
COUPDAYSB Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date
COUPDAYSB Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date
COUPDAYSNC Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date
COUPNCD Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date
COUPNUM Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date
COUPPCD Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date
COVAR Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
COVARIANCE.P Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations.
COVARIANCE.S Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets
CRITBINOM Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
CSC Returns the cosecant of an angle
CSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle
CUBEKPIMEMBER Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization’s performance.
CUBEMEMBER Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube.
CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member.
CUBERANKEDMEMBER Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students.
CUBESET Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel.
CUBESETCOUNT Returns the number of items in a set.
CUBEVALUE Returns an aggregated value from a cube.
CUMIPMT Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods.
CUMPRINC Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods.
DATE Returns the serial number of a particular date
DATEDIF Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age.
DATEVALUE Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number.
DAVERAGE Returns the average of selected database entries.
DAY Converts a serial number to a day of the month.
DAYS Returns the number of days between two dates.
DAYS360 Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year.
DB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method.
DBCS Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters.
DCOUNT Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database.
DCOUNTA Counts nonblank cells in a database.
DDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify.
DEC2BIN Converts a decimal number to binary.
DEC2HEX Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.
DEC2OCT Converts a decimal number to octal.
DECIMAL Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number.
DELTA Tests whether two values are equal.
DEVSQ Returns the sum of squares of deviations.
DGET Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria.
DISC Returns the discount rate for a security.
DMAX Returns the maximum value from selected database entries.
DMIN Returns the minimum value from selected database entries.
DOLLAR Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format.
DOLLARDE Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number.
DOLLARFR Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction.
DPRODUCT Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database.
DSTDEV Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries
DSTDEVP Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries
DSUM Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria
DURATION Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments.
DVAR Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries.
DVARP Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries.
EDATE Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date.
EFFECT Returns the effective annual interest rate.
ENCODEURL Returns a URL-encoded string.
EOMONTH Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months.
ERF Returns the error function.
ERF.PRECISE Returns the error function.
ERFC Returns the complementary error function.
ERFC.PRECISE Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity.
ERROR.TYPE Returns a number corresponding to an error type
EUROCONVERT Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation).
EVEN Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer.
EXACT Checks to see if two text values are identical.
EXP Returns e raised to the power of a given number.
EXPON.DIST Returns the exponential distribution.
EXPONDIST Returns the exponential distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
FACT Returns the factorial of a number.
FACTDOUBLE Returns the double factorial of a number.
FALSE Returns the logical value FALSE.
F.DIST Returns the F probability distribution.
FDIST Returns the F probability distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
F.DIST.RT Returns the F probability distribution.
FILTER Filters a range of data based on criteria you define.
FILTERXML Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath.
FIND Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive).
F.INV Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
F.INV.RT Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
FINV Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.
FISHER Returns the Fisher transformation.
FISHERINV Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.
FIXED Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals.
FLOOR Rounds a number down, toward zero. In Excel 2007 and Excel 2010, this is a Math and trigonometry function.
FLOOR.MATH Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
FLOOR.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
FORECAST Returns a value along a linear trend.
FORECAST.ETS Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm.
FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date.
FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series.
FORECAST.ETS.STAT Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting.
FORECAST.LINEAR Returns a future value based on existing values.
FORMULATEXT Returns the formula at the given reference as text.
FREQUENCY Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array.
F.TEST Returns the result of an F-test.
FTEST Returns the result of an F-test. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
FV Returns the future value of an investment.
FVSCHEDULE Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates.
GAMMA Returns the Gamma function value.
GAMMA.DIST Returns the gamma distribution.
GAMMADIST Returns the gamma distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
GAMMA.INV Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.
GAMMAINV Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
GAMMALN Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).
GAMMALN.PRECISE Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x.
GAUSS Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution.
GCD Returns the greatest common divisor.
GEOMEAN Returns the geometric mean.
GESTEP Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value.
GETPIVOTDATA Returns data stored in a PivotTable report.
GROWTH Returns values along an exponential trend.
HARMEAN Returns the harmonic mean.
HEX2BIN Converts a hexadecimal number to binary.
HEX2DEC Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.
HEX2OCT Converts a hexadecimal number to octal.
HLOOKUP Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell.
HOUR Converts a serial number to an hour.
HYPERLINK Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet.
HYPGEOM.DIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution.
HYPGEOMDIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
IF Specifies a logical test to perform.
IFERROR Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula.
IFNA Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression.
IFS Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.
IMABS Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number.
IMAGINARY Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number.
IMARGUMENT Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians.
IMCONJUGATE Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number.
IMCOS Returns the cosine of a complex number.
IMCOSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number.
IMCOT Returns the cotangent of a complex number.
IMCSC Returns the cosecant of a complex number.
IMCSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number.
IMDIV Returns the quotient of two complex numbers.
IMEXP Returns the exponential of a complex number.
IMLN Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number.
IMLOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number.
IMLOG2 Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number.
IMPOWER Returns a complex number raised to an integer power.
IMPRODUCT Returns the product of complex numbers.
IMREAL Returns the real coefficient of a complex number.
IMSEC Returns the secant of a complex number.
IMSECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number.
IMSIN Returns the sine of a complex number.
IMSINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number.
IMSQRT Returns the square root of a complex number.
IMSUB Returns the difference between two complex numbers.
IMSUM Returns the sum of complex numbers.
IMTAN Returns the tangent of a complex number.
INDEX Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array. Returns the value on the specified location in the reference or array.
INDIRECT Returns a reference indicated by a text value
INFO Returns information about the current operating environment
INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer
INTERCEPT Returns the intercept of the linear regression line
INTRATE Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security
IPMT Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period
IRR Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows
ISBLANK Returns TRUE if the value is blank
ISERR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A
ISERROR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value
ISEVEN Returns TRUE if the number is even
ISFORMULA Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula
ISLOGICAL Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value
ISNA Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value
ISNONTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is not text
ISNUMBER Returns TRUE if the value is a number
ISODD Returns TRUE if the number is odd
ISREF Returns TRUE if the value is a reference
ISTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is text
ISO.Ceiling Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
ISOWEEKNUM Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date
ISPMT Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment
JIS Changes half-width (single-byte) characters within a string to full-width (double-byte) characters
KURT Returns the kurtosis of a data set
LARGE Returns the k-th largest value in a data set
LCM Returns the least common multiple
LEFT, LEFTB Returns the leftmost characters from a text value
LEN, LENB Returns the number of characters in a text string
LINEST Returns the parameters of a linear trend
LN Returns the natural logarithm of a number
LOG Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base
LOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number
LOGEST Returns the parameters of an exponential trend
LOGINV Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution
LOGNORM.DIST Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution
LOGNORMDIST Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution
LOGNORM.INV Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution
LOOKUP Looks up values in a vector or array
LOWER Converts text to lowercase
MATCH Looks up values in a reference or array
MAX Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments
MAXA Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
MAXIFS Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria
MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of an array
MDURATION Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100
MEDIAN Returns the median of the given numbers
MID, MIDB Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify
MIN Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments
MINIFS Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria.
MINA Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
MINUTE Converts a serial number to a minute
MINVERSE Returns the matrix inverse of an array
MIRR Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates
MMULT Returns the matrix product of two arrays
MOD Returns the remainder from division
MODE Returns the most common value in a data set
MODE.MULT Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data
MODE.SINGL Returns the most common value in a data set
MONTH Converts a serial number to a month
MROUND Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple
MULTINOMIAL Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers
MUNIT Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension
N Returns a value converted to a number
NA Returns the error value #N/A
NEGBINOM.DIST Returns the negative binomial distribution
NEGBINOMDIST Returns the negative binomial distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
NETWORKDAYS Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates
NETWORKDAYS.INTL Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days
NOMINAL Returns the annual nominal interest rate
NORM.DIST Returns the normal cumulative distribution
NORMDIST Returns the normal cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
NORMINV Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution
NORM.INV Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. Note: In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
NORM.S.DIST Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution
NORMSDIST Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
NORM.S.INV Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution
NORMSINV Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
NOT Reverses the logic of its argument.
NOW Returns the serial number of the current date and time
NPER Returns the number of periods for an investment
NPV Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate
NUMBERVALUE Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner.
OCT2BIN Converts an octal number to binary
OCT2DEC Converts an octal number to decimal
OCT2HEX Converts an octal number to hexadecimal
ODD Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer
ODDFPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period
ODDFYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period
ODDLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period
ODDLYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period
OFFSET Returns a reference offset from a given reference
OR Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE
PDURATION Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value
PEARSON Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
PERCENTILE.EXC Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive
PERCENTILE.INC Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range
PERCENTILE Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
PERCENTRANK.EXC Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set
PERCENTRANK.INC Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
PERCENTRANK Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
PERMUT Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects
PERMUTATIONA Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects
PHI Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution
PHONETIC Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string
PI Returns the value of pi
PMT Returns the periodic payment for an annuity
POISSON.DIST Returns the Poisson distribution
POISSON Returns the Poisson distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
POWER Returns the result of a number raised to a power
PPMT Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period
PRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest
PRICEDISC Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security
PRICEMAT Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity
PROB Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits
PRODUCT Multiplies its arguments
PROPER Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value
PV Returns the present value of an investment
QUARTILE Returns the quartile of a data set. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
QUARTILE.EXC Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive
QUARTILE.INC Returns the quartile of a data set
QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division
RAND Returns a random number between 0 and 1
RANDARRAY Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. However, you can specify the number of rows and columns to fill, minimum and maximum values, and whether to return whole numbers or decimal values.
RANDBETWEEN Returns a random number between the numbers you specify
RANK.AVG Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
RANK.EQ Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
RANK Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
RATE Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity
RECEIVED Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security
REGISTER.ID Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered
REPLACE, REPLACEB Replaces characters within text
REPT Repeats text a given number of times
RIGHT, RIGHTB Returns the rightmost characters from a text value
ROMAN Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text
ROUND Rounds a number to a specified number of digits
ROUNDDOWN Rounds a number down, toward zero
ROUNDUP Rounds a number up, away from zero
ROW Returns the row number of a reference
ROWS Returns the number of rows in a reference
RRI Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment
RSQ Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
RTD Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation
SEARCH, SEARCHB Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive)
SEC Returns the secant of an angle
SECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle
SECOND Converts a serial number to a second
SEQUENCE Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4
SERIESSUM Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula
SHEET Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet
SHEETS Returns the number of sheets in a reference
SIGN Returns the sign of a number
SIN Returns the sine of the given angle
SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number
SKEW Returns the skewness of a distribution
SKEW.P Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean
SLN Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period
SLOPE Returns the slope of the linear regression line
SMALL Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set
SORT Sorts the contents of a range or array
SORTBY Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array
SQRT Returns a positive square root
SQRTPI Returns the square root of (number * pi)
STANDARDIZE Returns a normalized value
STDEV Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
STDEV.P Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
STDEV.S Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
STDEVA Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values
STDEVP Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
STDEVPA Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
STEYX Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression
SUBSTITUTE Substitutes new text for old text in a text string
SUBTOTAL Returns a subtotal in a list or database
SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria
SUMIFS Adds the cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria.
SUMPRODUCT Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components
SUMSQ Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments
SUMX2MY2 Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays
SUMX2PY2 Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays
SUMXMY2 Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays
SWITCH Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned.
SYD Returns the sum-of-years’ digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period
T Converts its arguments to text
TAN Returns the tangent of a number
TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number
TBILLEQ Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill.
TBILLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill
TBILLYIELD Returns the yield for a Treasury bill
T.DIST Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution
T.DIST.2T Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution
T.DIST.RT Returns the Student’s t-distribution
TDIST Returns the Student’s t-distribution
TEXT Formats a number and converts it to text
TEXTJOIN Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges.
TIME Returns the serial number of a particular time
TIMEVALUE Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number
T.INV Returns the t-value of the Student’s t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom
T.INV.2T Returns the inverse of the Student’s t-distribution
TINV Returns the inverse of the Student’s t-distribution
TODAY Returns the serial number of today’s date
TRANSPOSE Returns the transpose of an array
TREND Returns values along a linear trend
TRIM Removes spaces from text
TRIMMEAN Returns the mean of the interior of a data set
TRUE Returns the logical value TRUE
TRUNC Truncates a number to an integer
T.TEST Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test
TTEST Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
TYPE Returns a number indicating the data type of a value.
UNICHAR Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value
UNICODE Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text
UNIQUE Returns a list of unique values in a list or range
UPPER Converts text to uppercase
VALUE Converts a text argument to a number
VAR Estimates variance based on a sample. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
VAR.P Calculates variance based on the entire population
VAR.S Estimates variance based on a sample.
VARA Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values
VARP Calculates variance based on the entire population. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
VARPA Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
VDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balancSe method
VLOOKUP Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell
WEBSERVICE Returns data from a web service. This function is not available in Excel for the web.
WEEKDAY Converts a serial number to a day of the week
WEEKNUM Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year
WEIBULL Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.
WEIBULL.DIST Returns the Weibull distribution
WORKDAY Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays
WORKDAY.INTL Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days
XIRR Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic
XLOOKUP Searches a range or an array, and returns an item corresponding to the first match it finds. If a match doesn’t exist, then XLOOKUP can return the closest (approximate) match.
XMATCH Returns the relative position of an item in an array or range of cells.
XNPV Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic
XOR Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments
YEAR Converts a serial number to a year
YEARFRAC Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date
YIELD Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest
YIELDDISC Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill
YIELDMAT Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity
Z.TEST Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test
ZTEST Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.