In Excel, function is a pre-defined formula that makes calculations easier. We’ll just have to input specific values in specific order known in Excel as arguments.

Here is a compiled list of all functions in Excel and what they do:

ABS Returns the absolute (positive) value of a number.

ACCRINT Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest.VL

ACCRINTM Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays at maturity.

ACOS Returns the arccosine of a number.

ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.

ACOT Returns the arccotangent of a number.

ACOTH Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number.

AGGREGATE Returns an aggregate in a list or database.

ADDRESS Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet.

AMORDEGRC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient

AMORLINC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period

AND Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE

ARABIC Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number

AREAS Returns the number of areas in a reference

ASC Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters

ASIN Returns the arcsine of a number

ASINH Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number

ATAN Returns the arctangent of a number

ATAN2 Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates

ATANH Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number

AVEDEV Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean

AVERAGE Returns the average of its arguments

AVERAGEA Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

AVERAGEIF Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria

AVERAGEIFS Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria.

BAHTTEXT Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format

BASE Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base)

BESSELI Returns the modified Bessel function In(x)

BESSELJ Returns the Bessel function Jn(x)

BESSELK Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x)

BESSELY Returns the Bessel function Yn(x)

BETADIST Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

BETA.DIST Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.

BETAINV Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

BETA.INV Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution.

BIN2DEC Converts a binary number to decimal

BIN2HEX Converts a binary number to hexadecimal

BIN2OCT Converts a binary number to octal

BINOMDIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

BINOM.DIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

BINOM.DIST.RANGE Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution

BINOM.INV Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value

BITAND Returns a ‘Bitwise And’ of two numbers

BITLSHIFT Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits

BITOR Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers

BITRSHIFT Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits

BITXOR Returns a bitwise ‘Exclusive Or’ of two numbers

CALL Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource

CEILING Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

CEILING.MATH Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

CEILING.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.

CELL Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell.

CHAR Returns the character specified by the code number

CHIDIST Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

CHIINV Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

CHITEST Returns the test for independence. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

CHISQ.DIST Returns the cumulative beta probability density function

CHISQ.DIST.RT Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

CHISQ.INV Returns the cumulative beta probability density function

CHISQ.INV.RT Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.

CHISQ.TEST Returns the test for independence.

CHOOSE Chooses a value from a list of values

CLEAN Removes all nonprintable characters from text

CODE Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string

COLUMN Returns the column number of a reference

COLUMNS Returns the number of columns in a reference

COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects

COMBINA Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items

COMPLEX Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number

CONCAT Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn’t provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments.

CONCATENATE Joins several text items into one text item

CONFIDENCE Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

CONFIDENCE.NORM Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.

CONFIDENCE.T Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student’s t distribution

CONVERT Converts a number from one measurement system to another

CORREL Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets

COS Returns the cosine of a number

COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number

COT Return the cotangent of an angle specified in radians.

COTH Return the hyperbolic cotangent of a hyperbolic angle.

COUNT Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments

COUNTA Counts how many values are in the list of arguments

COUNTBLANK Counts the number of blank cells within a range

COUNTIF Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria

COUNTIFS Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria

COUPDAYSB Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date

COUPDAYSB Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date

COUPDAYSNC Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date

COUPNCD Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date

COUPNUM Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date

COUPPCD Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date

COVAR Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

COVARIANCE.P Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations.

COVARIANCE.S Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets

CRITBINOM Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

CSC Returns the cosecant of an angle

CSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle

CUBEKPIMEMBER Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization’s performance.

CUBEMEMBER Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube.

CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member.

CUBERANKEDMEMBER Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students.

CUBESET Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel.

CUBESETCOUNT Returns the number of items in a set.

CUBEVALUE Returns an aggregated value from a cube.

CUMIPMT Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods.

CUMPRINC Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods.

DATE Returns the serial number of a particular date

DATEDIF Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age.

DATEVALUE Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number.

DAVERAGE Returns the average of selected database entries.

DAY Converts a serial number to a day of the month.

DAYS Returns the number of days between two dates.

DAYS360 Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year.

DB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method.

DBCS Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters.

DCOUNT Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database.

DCOUNTA Counts nonblank cells in a database.

DDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify.

DEC2BIN Converts a decimal number to binary.

DEC2HEX Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.

DEC2OCT Converts a decimal number to octal.

DECIMAL Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number.

DEGREES Converts radians to degrees.

DELTA Tests whether two values are equal.

DEVSQ Returns the sum of squares of deviations.

DGET Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria.

DISC Returns the discount rate for a security.

DMAX Returns the maximum value from selected database entries.

DMIN Returns the minimum value from selected database entries.

DOLLAR Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format.

DOLLARDE Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number.

DOLLARFR Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction.

DPRODUCT Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database.

DSTDEV Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries

DSTDEVP Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries

DSUM Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria

DURATION Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments.

DVAR Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries.

DVARP Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries.

EDATE Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date.

EFFECT Returns the effective annual interest rate.

ENCODEURL Returns a URL-encoded string.

EOMONTH Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months.

ERF Returns the error function.

ERF.PRECISE Returns the error function.

ERFC Returns the complementary error function.

ERFC.PRECISE Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity.

ERROR.TYPE Returns a number corresponding to an error type

EUROCONVERT Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation).

EVEN Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer.

EXACT Checks to see if two text values are identical.

EXP Returns e raised to the power of a given number.

EXPON.DIST Returns the exponential distribution.

EXPONDIST Returns the exponential distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

FACT Returns the factorial of a number.

FACTDOUBLE Returns the double factorial of a number.

FALSE Returns the logical value FALSE.

F.DIST Returns the F probability distribution.

FDIST Returns the F probability distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

F.DIST.RT Returns the F probability distribution.

FILTER Filters a range of data based on criteria you define.

FILTERXML Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath.

FIND Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive).

F.INV Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.

F.INV.RT Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.

FINV Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution.

FISHER Returns the Fisher transformation.

FISHERINV Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.

FIXED Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals.

FLOOR Rounds a number down, toward zero. In Excel 2007 and Excel 2010, this is a Math and trigonometry function.

FLOOR.MATH Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.

FLOOR.PRECISE Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.

FORECAST Returns a value along a linear trend.

FORECAST.ETS Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm.

FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date.

FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series.

FORECAST.ETS.STAT Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting.

FORECAST.LINEAR Returns a future value based on existing values.

FORMULATEXT Returns the formula at the given reference as text.

FREQUENCY Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array.

F.TEST Returns the result of an F-test.

FTEST Returns the result of an F-test. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

FV Returns the future value of an investment.

FVSCHEDULE Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates.

GAMMA Returns the Gamma function value.

GAMMA.DIST Returns the gamma distribution.

GAMMADIST Returns the gamma distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

GAMMA.INV Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution.

GAMMAINV Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

GAMMALN Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x).

GAMMALN.PRECISE Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x.

GAUSS Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution.

GCD Returns the greatest common divisor.

GEOMEAN Returns the geometric mean.

GESTEP Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value.

GETPIVOTDATA Returns data stored in a PivotTable report.

GROWTH Returns values along an exponential trend.

HARMEAN Returns the harmonic mean.

HEX2BIN Converts a hexadecimal number to binary.

HEX2DEC Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal.

HEX2OCT Converts a hexadecimal number to octal.

HLOOKUP Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell.

HOUR Converts a serial number to an hour.

HYPERLINK Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet.

HYPGEOM.DIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution.

HYPGEOMDIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

IF Specifies a logical test to perform.

IFERROR Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula.

IFNA Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression.

IFS Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.

IMABS Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number.

IMAGINARY Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number.

IMARGUMENT Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians.

IMCONJUGATE Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number.

IMCOS Returns the cosine of a complex number.

IMCOSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number.

IMCOT Returns the cotangent of a complex number.

IMCSC Returns the cosecant of a complex number.

IMCSCH Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number.

IMDIV Returns the quotient of two complex numbers.

IMEXP Returns the exponential of a complex number.

IMLN Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number.

IMLOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number.

IMLOG2 Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number.

IMPOWER Returns a complex number raised to an integer power.

IMPRODUCT Returns the product of complex numbers.

IMREAL Returns the real coefficient of a complex number.

IMSEC Returns the secant of a complex number.

IMSECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number.

IMSIN Returns the sine of a complex number.

IMSINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number.

IMSQRT Returns the square root of a complex number.

IMSUB Returns the difference between two complex numbers.

IMSUM Returns the sum of complex numbers.

IMTAN Returns the tangent of a complex number.

INDEX Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array. Returns the value on the specified location in the reference or array.

INDIRECT Returns a reference indicated by a text value

INFO Returns information about the current operating environment

INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer

INTERCEPT Returns the intercept of the linear regression line

INTRATE Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security

IPMT Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period

IRR Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows

ISBLANK Returns TRUE if the value is blank

ISERR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A

ISERROR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value

ISEVEN Returns TRUE if the number is even

ISFORMULA Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula

ISLOGICAL Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value

ISNA Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value

ISNONTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is not text

ISNUMBER Returns TRUE if the value is a number

ISODD Returns TRUE if the number is odd

ISREF Returns TRUE if the value is a reference

ISTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is text

ISO.Ceiling Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance

ISOWEEKNUM Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date

ISPMT Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment

JIS Changes half-width (single-byte) characters within a string to full-width (double-byte) characters

KURT Returns the kurtosis of a data set

LARGE Returns the k-th largest value in a data set

LCM Returns the least common multiple

LEFT, LEFTB Returns the leftmost characters from a text value

LEN, LENB Returns the number of characters in a text string

LINEST Returns the parameters of a linear trend

LN Returns the natural logarithm of a number

LOG Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base

LOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number

LOGEST Returns the parameters of an exponential trend

LOGINV Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution

LOGNORM.DIST Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution

LOGNORMDIST Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution

LOGNORM.INV Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution

LOOKUP Looks up values in a vector or array

LOWER Converts text to lowercase

MATCH Looks up values in a reference or array

MAX Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments

MAXA Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

MAXIFS Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria

MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of an array

MDURATION Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100

MEDIAN Returns the median of the given numbers

MID, MIDB Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify

MIN Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments

MINIFS Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria.

MINA Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values

MINUTE Converts a serial number to a minute

MINVERSE Returns the matrix inverse of an array

MIRR Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates

MMULT Returns the matrix product of two arrays

MOD Returns the remainder from division

MODE Returns the most common value in a data set

MODE.MULT Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data

MODE.SINGL Returns the most common value in a data set

MONTH Converts a serial number to a month

MROUND Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple

MULTINOMIAL Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers

MUNIT Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension

N Returns a value converted to a number

NA Returns the error value #N/A

NEGBINOM.DIST Returns the negative binomial distribution

NEGBINOMDIST Returns the negative binomial distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

NETWORKDAYS Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates

NETWORKDAYS.INTL Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days

NOMINAL Returns the annual nominal interest rate

NORM.DIST Returns the normal cumulative distribution

NORMDIST Returns the normal cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

NORMINV Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution

NORM.INV Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. Note: In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

NORM.S.DIST Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution

NORMSDIST Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

NORM.S.INV Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution

NORMSINV Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

NOT Reverses the logic of its argument.

NOW Returns the serial number of the current date and time

NPER Returns the number of periods for an investment

NPV Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate

NUMBERVALUE Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner.

OCT2BIN Converts an octal number to binary

OCT2DEC Converts an octal number to decimal

OCT2HEX Converts an octal number to hexadecimal

ODD Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer

ODDFPRICE Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period

ODDFYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period

ODDLPRICE Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period

ODDLYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period

OFFSET Returns a reference offset from a given reference

OR Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE

PDURATION Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value

PEARSON Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient

PERCENTILE.EXC Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive

PERCENTILE.INC Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range

PERCENTILE Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

PERCENTRANK.EXC Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set

PERCENTRANK.INC Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set

PERCENTRANK Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

PERMUT Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects

PERMUTATIONA Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects

PHI Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution

PHONETIC Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string

PI Returns the value of pi

PMT Returns the periodic payment for an annuity

POISSON.DIST Returns the Poisson distribution

POISSON Returns the Poisson distribution. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

POWER Returns the result of a number raised to a power

PPMT Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period

PRICE Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest

PRICEDISC Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security

PRICEMAT Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity

PROB Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits

PRODUCT Multiplies its arguments

PROPER Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value

PV Returns the present value of an investment

QUARTILE Returns the quartile of a data set. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

QUARTILE.EXC Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive

QUARTILE.INC Returns the quartile of a data set

QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division

RADIANS Converts degrees to radians

RAND Returns a random number between 0 and 1

RANDARRAY Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. However, you can specify the number of rows and columns to fill, minimum and maximum values, and whether to return whole numbers or decimal values.

RANDBETWEEN Returns a random number between the numbers you specify

RANK.AVG Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers

RANK.EQ Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers

RANK Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

RATE Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity

RECEIVED Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security

REGISTER.ID Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered

REPLACE, REPLACEB Replaces characters within text

REPT Repeats text a given number of times

RIGHT, RIGHTB Returns the rightmost characters from a text value

ROMAN Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text

ROUND Rounds a number to a specified number of digits

ROUNDDOWN Rounds a number down, toward zero

ROUNDUP Rounds a number up, away from zero

ROW Returns the row number of a reference

ROWS Returns the number of rows in a reference

RRI Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment

RSQ Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient

RTD Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation

SEARCH, SEARCHB Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive)

SEC Returns the secant of an angle

SECH Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle

SECOND Converts a serial number to a second

SEQUENCE Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4

SERIESSUM Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula

SHEET Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet

SHEETS Returns the number of sheets in a reference

SIGN Returns the sign of a number

SIN Returns the sine of the given angle

SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number

SKEW Returns the skewness of a distribution

SKEW.P Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean

SLN Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period

SLOPE Returns the slope of the linear regression line

SMALL Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set

SORT Sorts the contents of a range or array

SORTBY Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array

SQRT Returns a positive square root

SQRTPI Returns the square root of (number * pi)

STANDARDIZE Returns a normalized value

STDEV Estimates standard deviation based on a sample

STDEV.P Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population

STDEV.S Estimates standard deviation based on a sample

STDEVA Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values

STDEVP Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

STDEVPA Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values

STEYX Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression

SUBSTITUTE Substitutes new text for old text in a text string

SUBTOTAL Returns a subtotal in a list or database

SUM Adds its arguments

SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria

SUMIFS Adds the cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria.

SUMPRODUCT Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components

SUMSQ Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments

SUMX2MY2 Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays

SUMX2PY2 Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays

SUMXMY2 Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays

SWITCH Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned.

SYD Returns the sum-of-years’ digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period

T Converts its arguments to text

TAN Returns the tangent of a number

TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number

TBILLEQ Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill.

TBILLPRICE Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill

TBILLYIELD Returns the yield for a Treasury bill

T.DIST Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution

T.DIST.2T Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution

T.DIST.RT Returns the Student’s t-distribution

TDIST Returns the Student’s t-distribution

TEXT Formats a number and converts it to text

TEXTJOIN Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges.

TIME Returns the serial number of a particular time

TIMEVALUE Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number

T.INV Returns the t-value of the Student’s t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom

T.INV.2T Returns the inverse of the Student’s t-distribution

TINV Returns the inverse of the Student’s t-distribution

TODAY Returns the serial number of today’s date

TRANSPOSE Returns the transpose of an array

TREND Returns values along a linear trend

TRIM Removes spaces from text

TRIMMEAN Returns the mean of the interior of a data set

TRUE Returns the logical value TRUE

TRUNC Truncates a number to an integer

T.TEST Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test

TTEST Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

TYPE Returns a number indicating the data type of a value.

UNICHAR Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value

UNICODE Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text

UNIQUE Returns a list of unique values in a list or range

UPPER Converts text to uppercase

VALUE Converts a text argument to a number

VAR Estimates variance based on a sample. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

VAR.P Calculates variance based on the entire population

VAR.S Estimates variance based on a sample.

VARA Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values

VARP Calculates variance based on the entire population. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

VARPA Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values

VDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balancSe method**VLOOKUP** Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell

WEBSERVICE Returns data from a web service. This function is not available in Excel for the web.

WEEKDAY Converts a serial number to a day of the week

WEEKNUM Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year

WEIBULL Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.

WEIBULL.DIST Returns the Weibull distribution

WORKDAY Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays

WORKDAY.INTL Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days

XIRR Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic

XLOOKUP Searches a range or an array, and returns an item corresponding to the first match it finds. If a match doesn’t exist, then XLOOKUP can return the closest (approximate) match.

XMATCH Returns the relative position of an item in an array or range of cells.

XNPV Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic

XOR Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments

YEAR Converts a serial number to a year

YEARFRAC Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date

YIELD Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest

YIELDDISC Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill

YIELDMAT Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity

Z.TEST Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test

ZTEST Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. In Excel 2007, this is a Statistical function.